The controversy of composite indices

GDP has long been the single number that is most used to gauge living standards around the globe. As the world becomes increasingly conscious of the shortcomings of our best current measures of progress, efforts are underway to create new ways of measuring the human condition—ones that are more conscious of social and environmental factors but can still be represented in a single, attention-capturing number. Composite indices like UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDI), the OECD Better Life Index and Yale’s Environmental Performance Index attempt to do just that—capturing a wider range of factors that contribute to human quality of life. But Martin Ravallion of the World Bank is deeply skeptical of such indices. In his 2010 article, Ravallion argues that:

Countries are increasingly being ranked by some new “mashup index of development,” defined as a composite index for which existing theory and practice provides little or no guidance to its design. Thus the index has an unusually large number of moving parts, which the producer is essentially free to set. The parsimony of these indices is often appealing — collapsing multiple dimensions into just one, yielding unambiguous country rankings, and possibly reducing concerns about measurement errors in the component series.[1]

A tool to start the conversation

Ravallion’s concern is justified. He notes that the tradeoffs implied in such indices can sometimes be troubling–in a previous article he finds that the implied value of human life in the HDI ranges from unacceptably low in poor countries to many times GDP in wealthier ones. But I’d argue that so long as composite indices are used as the jumping off point for a deeper conversation, much can be gained from harnessing their attention-capturing power.

Composite indices have an important role in getting the conversation started: in the age of twitter, attention spans tend towards 140 characters and few policymakers have the time to sit down and read a policy brief. However, in a few seconds one number from a composite index—the country’s rank among peers—sends a powerful message. Dig just one layer deeper into an index’s component scores and a it flags areas where a country does relatively poorly, so that policymakers can focus efforts on improving their worse performance vis a vis peer countries. Composite indices are unique among research products in their ability to capture even short attention spans and catalyze policy action.

Composite indices are nonsense

In a certain way, composite indices are nonsense. They bring together an assortment of issues into a single, unitless measure. But they reflect the nonsense of our reality: that policymakers are expected to balance many competing priorities determined by an abstract concept of social welfare and that are essentially non-substitutable. The extent to which composite indices are nonsense is only the extent to which they reflect the real, difficult choices that policymakers must make. And if composite indices are used as one tool among many—as a snapshot of policymaker performance across the issues that experts think matter most, and a tool for focusing efforts—they can provide valuable context for policy action.

[1] Ravallion, M. (2010). “Mashup indices of development.”


Why environmentalists can’t ignore development economics, and two books to get us started

Picture rural Ghana: Orange-brown yam fields with hand-piled dirtmounds stretch for miles in any direction, a silent testament to the fact that half the country’s population makes its living from agriculture. The farmers wait for rain; the yams need it – but for all of its life-giving properties, it complicates life when it comes, carving deep gullies into dirt roads and bringing anopheles mosquitoes and their bellyfuls of the malaria parasite, which kills nearly one million people annually.

The developing world is tightly intertwined with the environment. Indeed, the U.N. calls ecosystems “the GDP of the poor,” because of the dependence this portion of society has on the environment. Now consider just how many people this portion represents: more than half of the earth’s population earns less than $3,000 per year. 

With paved roads, financial metropoles and first-world medical care it’s easy to forget how visceral our connection to the environment is. But our task as environmentalists–understanding the complex relations between humans and the environment–cannot be accomplished without a close look at the developing world.

Though academic articles within the discipline can be daunting, two excellent, accessible books covering development economics research have been released this year. Written in a narrative style, Karlan and Appel’s More than Good Intentions and Banerjee and Duflo’s Poor Economics summarize key developments in the past decade. The authors are all involved in two cutting-edge development research organizations: Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) and The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL). IPA and J-PAL have pioneered the use of randomized controlled trials, methodology borrowed from medical trials that has brought the rigor of hard science to development research.

Important reading for all environmentalists.